@upper |

Uppercase representation of string or upper triangular matrix of a matrix.

String

Syntax: @upper(str)

str: string

Return: string

Returns the uppercase representation of the string str.

Matrix

Syntax: @upper(x[, n])

x: matrix, sym

n (optional) integer

Return: matrix

Returns a matrix whose elements on and above the n-th diagonal match the corresponding elements of the matrix m, but whose elements below the n-th diagonal are zero.

By default, n is has a value of zero indicating the main diagonal. Positive values of n indicate super-diagonals, while negative values of k indicate sub-diagonals.

Examples

String

If we define the string object

string s1 = "I did NOT do it"

the commands

@upper("I did NOT do it")

@upper(s1)

return the string “I DID NOT DO IT”.

If ALPHA1 is an alpha series,

alpha alphalwr = @upper(alpha1)

returns the upper of the strings in ALPHA1 for each observation in the workfile sample.

If SVEC1 is an string vector,

svector sveclen = @upper(svec1)

returns a string vector containing the uppercased elements of SVEC1.

Matrix

The commands

matrix(3,3) m1

m1.fill 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

matrix u1 = @upper(m1)

matrix u2 = @upper(m1, 1)

matrix u3 = @upper(m1, -1)

create a matrix M1 holding the values

while the matrix U1 contains,

the matrix U2 contains,

and the matrix U3 contains,

If we have the commands,

sym s = @rwish(@identity(5), 5)

matrix s1 = @upper(s)

matrix s2 = @upper(s, 1)

matrix s2 = @upper(s, 1)

then S is a sym matrix and S1 is a upper triangular matrix with elements at or above the main diagonal equal to those in S, and elements below the main diagonal equal to zero. S2 is a strictly upper triangular matrix that is equal to S1, but with the main diagonal elements also set to 0.

Cross-references

See also
@lower.